1. Thornalley, P.J., Battah, S., Ahmed, N., Karachalias, N., Agalou, S., Babaei-Jadidi, R. and Dawnay, A. (2003) Quantitative screening of advanced glycation endproducts in cellular and extracellular proteins by tandem mass spectrometry Biochem. J. 375, 581-592

  1. Thornalley, P.J. (2006) Quantitative screening of protein glycation, oxidation and nitration adducts by LC-MS/MS: protein damage in diabetes, uremia, cirrhosis and Alzheimer’s disease. Redox Proteomics, Protein Oxidative Modifications, and Human Disease (Dalle-Donne, I., Scaloni, A. and Butterfield, A. eds.), Wiley-Interscience, 681 – 727

  1. Rabbani, N. and Thornalley, P.J. (2008) Assay of 3-Nitrotyrosine in Tissues and Body Fluids by Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometric Detection. Methods in Enzymol. 440, 337-359.

  1. Rabbani, N., Shaheen, F., Anwar, A., Masania, J. and Thornalley, P.J. (2014) Assay of methylglyoxal-derived protein and nucleotide advanced glycation endproducts. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 42, 511 – 517.

  1. Chiu, C.-J., Rowan, S., Chang, M.-L., Sawyer, S., Hu, F., Willett, W., Rabbani, N., Thornalley, P.J., Bar, L., Kang, J.H. and Taylor, A. (2018) Studies of advanced glycation end products and oxidation biomarkers for type 2 diabetes. Biofactors 44, 281 – 288.

  1. Rabbani, N., and Thornalley, P.J. (2020) Reading the patterns of proteome damage by glycation, oxidation and nitration – quantitation by stable isotopic dilution analysis LC-MS/MS. Essays in Biochem 64, 169 – 183



  1. Ahmed, N., Babaei-Jadidi, Howell, S.K., Beisswenger, P.J. and Thornalley, P.J. (2005) Degradation products of proteins damaged by glycation, oxidation and nitration in clinical type 1 diabetes. Diabetologia 48, 1590 – 1603.

  1. Ahmed, N., Babaei-Jadidi, R., Howell, S.K., Thornalley, P.J. and Beisswenger, P.J. (2005) Glycated and oxidised protein degradation products are indicators of fasting and postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetes. Diabetes Care 28, 2465–2471.

  1. Duran-Jimenez, B., Dobler, D., Moffatt, S., Rabbani, N., Streuli, C.H. Thornalley, P.J., Tomlinson, D.R. and Gardiner, N.J. (2009) Advanced Glycation Endproducts in extracellular matrix proteins contribute to the failure of sensory nerve regeneration in diabetes. Diabetes 58, 2893-2903.

  1. Karachalias, N., Babaei-Jadidi, R., Rabbani, N. and Thornalley, P.J. (2010) Protein glycation, oxidation and nitration in renal glomeruli, retina, nerve, plasma and urine of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and effect of thiamine and Benfotiamine therapy. Diabetologia 53, 1506–1516.


  1. Xue, M., Weickert, M.O., Qureshi, S., Kandala, N.-B., Anwar, A., Waldron, M., Shafie, A., Messenger, D., Fowler, M., Jenkins, G., Rabbani, N. and Thornalley, P.J. (2016) Improved glycemic control and vascular function in overweight and obese subjects by glyoxalase 1 inducer formulation. Diabetes 65, 2282 – 2294.

  1. Masania, J., Malczewska-Malec, M., Razny, U., Goralska, J., Zdzienicka, A., Kiec-Wilk, B., Gruca, A., Stancel-Mozwillo, J., Dembinska-Kiec, A., Rabbani, N., Thornalley, P.J. (2016) Dicarbonyl stress in clinical obesity. Glycoconjugate J. 33, 581-589.

  1. Razny, U., Goralska, J., Zdzienicka, A, Fedak, D., Masania, J., Rabbani, N., Thornalley, P.J., Pawlica-Gosiewska, D., Gawlik, K., Dembinska-Kiec, A., Solnica, B. and Malczewska-Malec, M. (2017) Relation of protein glycation, oxidation and nitration with osteocalcin level in obese subjects. Acta Biochim. Polon. 64, 415-422.

  1. Masania, J., Faustmann, G. , Anwar, A., Hafner-Giessauf, H., Rajpoot, N., Grabher, J., Rajpoot, K., Tiran, B., Obermayer-Pietsch, B., Winklhofer-Roob, B.M., Roob, J.M., and Rabbani, N. and Thornalley, P.J. (2019) Urinary metabolomic markers of protein glycation, oxidation and nitration in early-stage decline in metabolic, vascular and renal health. Oxidative Medicine & Longevity 2019, Article ID 4851323.

  1. Rabbani, N., Xue, M., Weickert, M.O. and Thornalley, P.J. (2021) Reversal of insulin resistance in overweight and obese subjects by trans-resveratrol and hesperetin combination – link to dysglycemia, blood pressure, dyslipidemia and low-grade inflammation.  Nutrients 13, 237.

Cardiovascular disease

  1. Rabbani, N., Varma Chittari, M., Bodmer, C.W., Zehnder, D., Ceriello, A. and Thornalley, P.J. (2010) Increased glycation and oxidative damage to apolipoprotein B100 of LDL in patients with type 2 diabetes and effect of metformin. Diabetes 59, 1038 – 1045.

  1. Rabbani, N., Godfrey, L., Xue, M., Shaheen, F., Geoffrion, M., Milne, R. and Thornalley, P.J. (2011) Glycation of LDL by Methylglyoxal Increases Arterial Atherogenicity. A Possible Contributor to Increased Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetes. Diabetes 60, 1973-1980.

  1. Geoffrion, M., Du, X., Irshad, Z., Vanderhyden, B.C., Courville, K., Sui, G., D’Agati, V.D., Ott-Braschi, S., Rabbani, N., Thornalley, P.J., Brownlee, M. and Milne, R.W. (2014) Differential effects of glyoxalase 1 overexpression on diabetic atherosclerosis and renal dysfunction in streptozotocin-treated apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Physiological Reports 2, e12043.

  1. Godfrey, L., Yamada-Fowler, N., Thornalley, P.J. and Rabbani, N. (2014) Arginine-directed glycation and decreased HDL plasma concentration and functionality. Nutrition and Diabetes 4, e134

Kidney disease

  1. Agalou, A., Ahmed, N., Babaei-Jadidi, R., Dawnay, A. and Thornalley, P.J. (2005) Profound mishandling of protein glycation degradation products in uremia and dialysis. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 16, 1471 – 1485

  1. Rabbani, N., Sebekova, K., Sebekova, K. Jr, Heidland, A. and Thornalley, P.J. (2007) Protein glycation, oxidation and nitration free adduct accumulation after bilateral nephrectomy and ureteral ligation. Kidney Internat. 72, 1113–1121

  1. Rabbani, N., Adaikalakoteswari, A., Rossing, K., Rossing, P., Tarnow, L., Parving, H.-H. and Thornalley, P.J. (2012) Effect of Irbesartan treatment on plasma and urinary protein glycation, oxidation and nitration markers in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria. Amino Acids, 42, 1627-1639.

  1. Perkins, B.A., Rabbani, N., Weston, A., Ficociello, L.H., Antonysunil, A., Niewczas, M., Warram, J., Krolewski, A. and Thornalley, P.J. (2012) Serum levels of advanced glycation endproducts and other markers of protein damage in early diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes. PLOS One 7(4): e35655.

  1. Perkins, B.A., Rabbani, N., Weston, A., Antonysunil, A., Lee, JA, Lovblom, LE., Cardinez, N., Thornalley, P.J. (2020) Higher fractional excretion of glycation adducts is associated with subsequent early GFR decline in type 1 diabetes. Scientific Reports 10, 12709.

  1. Rabbani, N., Adaikalakoteswari, A., Larkin, J.R., Panagiotopoulos, S., MacIsaac, R.J., Yue, D.K., Fulcher, G.R., Roberts, M., Thomas, M., Ekinci, E. and Thornalley, P.J. (2023) Analysis of serum advanced glycation endproducts reveals methylglyoxal-derived advanced glycation MG-H1 free adduct is a risk marker in non-diabetic and diabetic chronic kidney disease. Internat. J. Molec. Sci. 24, 152.


  1. Ahmed, N., Thornalley, P.J., Lüthen, R., Häussinger, D., Sebekova, K., Schinzel, R., Voelker, W. and Heidland, A. (2004) Processing of protein glycation, oxidation and nitrosation adducts in the liver and the effect of cirrhosis. J. Hepatology 41, 913-919.

Neurological disorders

  1. Ahmed, N., Ahmed, U., Hager, K., Fleischer, G., Münch, G. and Thornalley, P.J. (2005) Protein glycation, oxidation and nitration marker residues and free adducts of cerebrospinal fluid in Alzheimer’s disease and link to cognitive impairment. J. Neurochem. 92, 255–263.

  1. Kurz, A., Rabbani, N., Walter, M., Bonin, M., Thornalley, P.J., Auburger, G. and Gispert, S. (2011) Alpha-synuclein deficiency leads to increased glyoxalase I expression and glycation stress. Cell and Molecular Life Sci. 68, 721 – 733.

  1. Anwar, A., Abruzzo, P.M., Pasha, S., Rajpoot, K., Bolotta, A., Ghezzo, A., Marini, M., Posar, A., Visconti, P., Thornalley, P.J. and Rabbani, N. (2018) Advanced glycation endproducts, dityrosine and arginine transporter dysfunction in autism – a source of biomarkers for clinical diagnosis. Molecular Autism 9: 3.

  1. Al-Saei, A.N.J.M., Eldine, W.N., Rajpoot, K., Arshad, N., Al-Shammari, A.R., Kamal, M., Al-Shabeeb Akil, A., Fakhro, K.A., Thornalley, P.J. and Rabbani, N. (2023) Validation of plasma protein glycation and oxidation biomarkers for the diagnosis of autism. Molecular Psychiatry,


  1. Ahmed, U., Savage, R.S., Anwar, M.M., Costa, M.L., Filer, A., Raza, K., Watts, R.A., Winyard, P.G., Tarr, J., Haigh, R.C., Thornalley, P.J. and Rabbani, N. (2015) Biomarker combination detects early-stage and discriminates osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory joint disease. Scientific Reports 5: 9259.

  1. Ahmed, U., Anwar, A., Savage, R.S., Thornalley, P.J. and Rabbani, N. (2016) Application of protein glycation, oxidation and nitration for early-stage diagnosis and severity of osteoarthritis and other arthritic disease. Arthritis Research & Therapy 18:250.

  1. Legrand, C., Ahmed, U., Anwar, A., Rajpoot, K., Pasha, S., Lambert, C., Davidson, R.K., Clark, I.M., Thornalley, P.J., Henrotin, Y. and Rabbani, N. (2018) Glycation marker glucosepane increases with the progression of osteoarthritis and correlates with morphological and functional changes of cartilage in vivo. Arthritis Res. Therap. 20: 131.


  1. Ahmed, N., Thornalley, P.J., Dawczynski, J., Franke, S., Strobel, J. and Stein, G. (2003) Methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone advanced glycation endproducts of human lens proteins. Invest. Ophthamol. Vis. Sci. 44, 5287-5202

  1. Morcos, M., Du, X., Pfisterer, F., Hutter, H., Sayed, A.A., Thornalley, P.J., Ahmed, N., Baynes, J., Thorpe, S., Kukudov, G., Schlotterer, A., Bozorgmehr, F., El Baki, R.A., Stern, D., Möhrlen, F., Ibrahim, Y., Oikonomou, D. Hamann, A., Becker, C., Zeier, M., Schwenger, V., Miftari, N., Humpert, P., Hammes, H.P., Buechler, M., Bierhaus, A., Brownlee, M., Nawroth, P.P. (2008) Glyoxalase-1 prevents mitochondrial protein modification and enhances life-span in C. elegans. Aging Cell 7, 260-269.

  1. Fleming, T.H., Theilen, T.-M., Masania, J., Wunderle, M., Karimi, J., Vittas, S., Bernauer, R., Bierhaus, A., Rabbani, N., Thornalley, P.J., Kroll, J., Tyedmers, J., Nawrotzki, R., Herzig, S., Brownlee, M. and Nawroth, P.P. (2013) Aging-dependent reduction in Glyoxalase-I delays wound healing.  Gerontology 59, 427 – 437.

  1. Rowan, S., Jiang, S., Korem, T., Szymanski, J., Chang, M.-L., Szelog, J., Cassalman, C., Dasuri, K., McGuire, C., Nagai, R., Du, X.-L., Brownlee, M., Rabbani, N., Thornalley, P.J., Baleja, J., Clish, C., Smith, D., Segal, E. and Taylor, A. (2017) Involvement of a gut-retina axis in protection against dietary glycemia induced age-related macular degeneration. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 114, E4472–E4481.

  1. Hariton, F., Xue, M., Rabbani, N., Fowler, M. and Paul J Thornalley. (2018) Sulforaphane delays fibroblast senescence by curbing cellular glucose uptake, increased glycolysis and oxidative damage. Oxidative Medicine & Longevity 2018, Article ID 5642148.

  2. Masania, J., Witjen, P., Keipert, S., Ost, M., Klaus, S., Rabbani, N. and Thornalley, P.J. (2023) Decreased methylglyoxal-mediated protein glycation in the healthy aging mouse model of ectopic expression of UCP1 in skeletal muscle. Redox Biology 59, 102574.